LPS inflammatory effects were analyzed in human U937 macrophages by cytokine release, cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymatic activity, COX protein expression (Western blot), specific mRNA levels (RT-PCR), and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) activation (phosphorylated p65 immunoassay). Nutrient supplementation in mice altered LPS-induced cytokine response in a manner similar to ibuprofen (r=0.4157, p=0.139). Cytokine response to LPS in cultured macrophages was similar to in vivo study (r=0.718, p=0.023). NM inhibited COX2 enzymatic activity and COX2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine protein expressions were downregulated by NM at transcription level complementing a blockade in NFkB activation. NM demonstrated strong beneficial effects in experimental inflammation by targeting multiple responsible mechanisms in a complex process of inflammatory reaction to pathogens.
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