Essential nutrients suppress inflammation by modulating key inflammatory gene expression

LPS inflammatory effects were analyzed in human U937 macrophages by cytokine release, cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymatic activity, COX protein expression (Western blot), specific mRNA levels (RT-PCR), and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) activation (phosphorylated p65 immunoassay). Nutrient supplementation in mice altered LPS-induced cytokine response in a manner similar to ibuprofen (r=0.4157, p=0.139). Cytokine response to LPS in cultured macrophages was similar to in vivo study (r=0.718, p=0.023). NM inhibited COX2 enzymatic activity and COX2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine protein expressions were downregulated by NM at transcription level complementing a blockade in NFkB activation. NM demonstrated strong beneficial effects in experimental inflammation by targeting multiple responsible mechanisms in a complex process of inflammatory reaction to pathogens.

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