Roomi MW, Bhanap B, Niedzwiecki A, Rath M.
J. Oncobiomarkers. 2015;2(1): 17
The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc containing endopeptidases that degrade various components of the extra cellular matrix. Among the many types of MMPs that have been identified, MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) are thought to play a key role in cancer metastasis. These MMPs are able to modify tumor microenvironment by degrading type IV collagen found in the cellular basement membrane. MMP-2 and -9 are essential in facilitating cancer cell invasion, tumor progression, and metastasis, thereby shortening patient survival in all cancer types.
A significant association has been reported between tumor aggression and increased levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Therefore, MMPs are used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in many clinical trials and experimental studies. MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) seem to be the logical targets for the therapeutic intervention in cancer. The rationale for developing MMPIs for halting cancer has been around for more than three decades. However, the clinical trials of synthetic MMPIs have not produced favorable results. In this review, we summarize the results of our in vitro studies evaluating effects of a natural and non-toxic nutrient mixture on inhibition of the cancer biomarkers; MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the treatment and control of metastasis of 42 different cancer cell lines from 13 representative classes of malignancies.
Keywords: MMP-2; MMP-9; Cancer biomarkers; Metastasis