Prostate cancer, the number one incidence of cancer in men and second most deadly cancer in the U.S., primarily affects males 55 and older, and is more common in African American males than Caucasian males. Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in the industrialized countries, which account for about 75% of cases; and the highest rates are found in Europe, North America and Australia. Prostate cancers have been identified as hormone dependent (androgen-sensitive) and independent (androgen-insensitive).
Current diagnostic methods, such as PSA tests and digital rectal exams, have helped with early detection of prostate cancer. Standard treatment of prostate cancer consists of surgery (prostatectomy), hormonal therapy and radiotherapy.
We investigated the effect of selected micronutrients working in synergy using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. These micronutrients included vitamin C, lysine, proline, N-acetylcysteine, arginine, green tea extract and other micronutrients.
Our in vitro studies were conducted using androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145) and androgen sensitive cell line (LNCaP). The results demonstrated that this synergy of micronutrients is effective in the suppression of prostate cancer cell growth, inhibition of MMP secretion, and other aspects. The invasion of both androgen sensitive and androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells through Matrigel was completely inhibited by this nutrient mixture, which implies its effectiveness in curbing prostate cancer cells invasion in the tissue, and the potential to control metastasis.
We also investigated the effect of micronutrient synergy on the growth of tumors induced by implanting PC-3 cells in athymic nude mice. In vivo data showed that the micronutrient mixture strongly suppressed the growth of tumors which was accompanied by the inhibition of Ki 67 index (indicator of cells division rate) and expression of MMPs (indicator of metastasis and tumor growth), VEGF (Vascular Endotherial Growth Factor – involved in angiogenesis and tumor growth), and fibronectin ( involved in metastasis and other cancer effects).
The administration of the micronutrient mixture in the diet did not cause any adverse effects.
These data suggest a strong potential of this nutrient mixture as a safe and effective approach in prostate cancer.
Testicular cancer is rare but still represents one of the most frequently occurring cancers in young men. Caucasian men contract testicular cancer more often than African American men. Its peak frequency is observed in early adulthood, between the ages of 20-35, and testicular cancer is rather uncommon after the age of 40.
Risk factors include undescended testes, Klinefelter syndrome and being HIV positive. While chemotherapy has been shown to work in testicular cancer in a number of cases, it is associated with severe side effects and a risk of various diseases. There is a need to develop safe and effective approaches in this type of cancer.
We investigated the effects of micronutrient synergy on human testicular cancer cells. In particular we tested whether this nutrient mixture can affect cancer cell proliferation, expression of connective tissue digesting enzymes (MMPs) and cancer cell invasive potential. Our results suggested that these selected micronutrients working in synergy have anti-cancer potential in testicular cancer by inhibiting critical steps in cancer development such as MMP expression and cancer cells invasion.