MMP secretion was studied by zymography, viability by MTT assay, cell invasion through Matrigel, and morphology and apoptosis by H&E staining and live green caspase kit. Zymography demonstrated MMP-2 secretion and PMA-induced MMP-9 secretion. NM inhibited the secretion of both MMPs in a dose-dependent fashion, with virtual total inhibition at 500 μg/ml NM. Cell invasion through Matrigel was inhibited at 10, 50, 100 and 500 μg/ml by 75%, 80%, 92% and 100% (p = 0.02) respectively. NM was slightly toxic at 1000 μg/ml (20% over control, p = 0.016) to rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Cells exposed to NM showed dose-dependent apoptosis with 90% of cells in late apoptosis at 1000 μg/ml. These results suggest that NM has potential in the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma by inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell invasion and MMP secretion without toxic effects.
Rhabdomyosarcoma, apoptosis, MMPs, Matrigel invasion, nutrients, green tea extract, ascorbic acid, lysine